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It is also affected by the heat input which determines cooling rates. In reality, that’s not the case. Those colors … Anything more and you’re wasting gas; you might even be causing turbulence in the puddle. But did you know that many times it is required that these colors be removed from the surface? Color Met. Once the procedure is qualified, follow it and don’t deviate. The resulting heat input was 10.6 KJ/in which is relatively low. The end. It is just a matter of the argon shielding envelope leaving the hot metal before it has a chance to cool enough to not oxidize. These are UHP, which will emit a blue hue, tungsten, which will emit a yellow hue, and metal-halide, which will emit a blue/green … For example, if you weld with 35 kJ/in. "Some swear there is a secret to it, others say its impossible. The odd occasion I can get a section to but not sure exactly how. Now check your email to confirm your subscription. Do they show that the weld had enough heat to penetrate? Often a light gold color is acceptable (and sometimes beyond that, depending on the application or code). So I’ll just give the quick and dirty version here. SUBSCRIBE for new videos every Monday and Friday: https://goo.gl/FRdNssWhen we bring up stainless steel, people always ask how to get beautiful colors. When it comes to cosmetics in stainless, it is hard to beat a TIG weld. 1/16th tungsten will weld 1/8" stainless just fine. Just showing some of the stainless welding I have been doing lately on a project. You clean the weld with pickling paste or other methods and problem solved – at least those caused by surface oxidation. The whole plant, flowers, stems and all, is dried and sold in bundles, and for dyeing and color-making it is broken up and stewed in water or a weak solution of alum. The darker the color is, the thicker the oxidization. The darker the color is, the thicker the oxidization. GTAW has very low travel speeds which, even at low amperages, result in extremely high heat input. The caveat here is also similar to stainless: it looks amazing when allowed to react. Austenitic Types 309 and 312 may be used for dissimilar joints. Sign up and be the first to know about the latest industry news, products, and events! Heat tint (temper) colours on stainless steel surfaces The colour formed when stainless steel is heated, either in a furnace application or in the heat affected zone of welds, is dependent on several factors that are related to the oxidation resistance of the steel. Please try again. It is important to develop a welding procedure that produces the quality from a structural standpoint as well as quality in terms of corrosion resistance. Coatings and surface chemical treatments are the most common coloring methods. So, I’ll just give the rest of you a quick and dirty version. Are these colors acceptable? Our product range includes machines for everyday heavy-duty work and occasional light weld cleaning, so you’ll definitely find the right solution for your application. When steel heats up, its entire molecular structure changes. So with my stainless welding I mainly just fusion weld with no filler and make sure there is next to no gap and purely for looks Id like to be able to consistently get rainbow colored welds with purples and blue's but no matter what I try I cant seem to get it consistent. of HI on 3/4-in. Enjoy full access to the digital edition of The Additive Report to learn how to use additive manufacturing technology to increase operational efficiency and improve the bottom line. Discoloration is oxidation. On stainless steel, for example, any color in the weld or HAZ shows that an oxide layer has formed, which can affect corrosion resistance. In some cases that might mean welding in a chamber, but if a No. And lastly, it is affected by contamination from the atmosphere (even with 100% inert gas) and surface contaminants.. 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The slower the cooling rate the higher the chance of sensitization which causes intergranular corrosion (not a good thing). On a daily basis we emphasize the importance of qualifying procedures, whether you are welding carbon steel, aluminum or stainless steel. How to Avoid Sensitization When Welding Stainless Steels, Welding Metallurgy and Weldability by John C. Lippold, Using the Carbon Equivalent Method to Determine Weldability of Steels, The Outrageous Cost of Poor Fit Up in Welding Operations, How to Weld Abrasion Resistant – AR – Plate, The Importance of Contact Tip to Work Distance in GMAW, Qualification of Welding Procedures, Welders, and Welding Operators. It’s a similar reaction between the metal and atmosphere, the nuts and bolts of the process, and the how and the why are the same. Type 409 is available as metal cored wire and Type 430 is available in all forms. No synthetic dye has been able to replace it in this function. Ive tried going faster, slower. (It needs a minimum of 10% chromium to create this effect.) This creates an oxide “skin” that stops the iron from bonding with oxygen to create rust. For instance, take a look at the weld below: This is a beautiful GTAW weld. Sometimes they indicate a bad weld, sometimes they don’t. That is why gas welding steel with an oxyfuel torch looks so gray all over. What’s happening is the metal is oxidizing. Below that, you might get pinging, but using anything rated higher than what the engine was designed to run on isn’t going to help; it’s a waste. The colors follow a predictable pattern, from chrome to straw to gold to blue to purple. To weld the ferritic stainless steels, filler metals should be used which match or exceed the Cr level of the base alloy. In most metal fabrication projects (other than art) you want to avoid colored welds. Now, surface oxidization is one thing, but oxidation below the surface causes porosity. Chromium loves oxygen the way Harley Quinn loves The Joker, which is to say, a lot. Enjoy full access to the digital edition of STAMPING Journal, which serves the metal stamping market with the latest technology advancements, best practices, and industry news. Thus the importance of qualification. The questions are endless. And that’s the big deal with using stainless steel, right? As the surface of the heated steel meets the atmosphere, it reacts with the elements in the air and oxidizes. A lot of people talk about color in welds, but they don't always understand why the color does or does not matter. Please note: I reserve the right to delete comments that are offensive or off-topic. Is the tinting an indication of quality? Color in a weld is a sign of oxide. All of them indicate a change in color on the top layer of stainless steel – around the weld bead and within the HAZ (heat-affected zone). Oxide lessens the ability of stainless metal to resist corrosion. For instance, remember when you were a kid and you wanted to put 110 octane race fuel in your mom’s minivan (at least it smelled amazing)? Reference: Welding Metallurgy and Weldability by John C. Lippold. On stainless steel, for example, any color in the weld or HAZ shows that an oxide layer has formed, which can affect corrosion resistance. But it’s just one of many factors. stainless steel, you might achieve a weld with a light straw color. Or welding with no need for the likes of me. And if you’re a wizard, you’re probably casting spells instead of welding. 2135 Point Blvd., Elgin, IL 60123 (815) 399-8700. The colors follow a predictable pattern, from chrome to straw to gold to blue to purple. Is an Amazon-like metal fabricator possible? Because of the chemical makeup of something like 308 stainless steel, a little heat can result in some very vivid colors. A lot of hot rod and motorcycle guys will take their chances with material integrity on exposed piping and exhausts because it looks so dang cool when it turns blue and purple. Easily access valuable industry resources now with full access to the digital edition of The WELDER. A similar HI value on stainless steel that is 1/8 in. Their absence can be a good thing. First things first: Why does steel change color? There was an error submitting your subscription. Old English D with stainless steel filler. Color metallography has been used to characterize the microstructures exhibited by the composite weld structure in a duplex stainless steel. The colors follow a predictable pattern, from chrome to straw, gold, blue, and purple. If you are one of the thousands that base their quality standards on Instagram posts please stop right now. It may not be bad in some cases, but it is never good. This was a mig (GMAW) weld done at a travel speed of about 35 inches a minute. low toughness of welds. Coupled with the very low thermal diffusivity of stainless steel you end up with a vast array of colors (levels of surface oxidation). The good news is you can remove it. Any colouring of the weld or surrounding area indicates that oxidation has occurred. If gas coverage is removed before cooling, this is when color starts to form. Colour Formed Approx Temperature C pale yellow 290 straw yellow 340 dark yellow 370 brown 390 purple brown 420 dark purple 450 blue 540 dark blue 600 I’ll often sacrifice rustproofing for the sake of looks. The darker the color, the thicker the oxidization. Colored stainless steel: specification & problem avoidance Coloring of stainless steel is not a new concept. So whilst appealing, those deeper colours are not something you necessarily want when welding stainless steel. If you were to use a really large tig nozzle, things would improve. If the gas coverage is left on the finished welding area as it cools, this area will remain silver or colorless. But we call it ‘rainbow colors’ which makes it seem desirable. Or even now, when your neighbor thinks that fueling up with 94 octane somehow makes his stock v6 Chevy Malibu a sneaky world beater? Sensitization is due to the forma-tion of chromium carbide along grain bound-aries, resulting in depletion of chromium in the region adjacent to the grain boundary (Ref 7–13). Those motors were built for 87 octane gasoline. The heat tint or temper colour formed is caused by the… I have been wondering what a stainless weld would look like if it was done in an argon chamber. While they often are used for situations in which you need an extended tungsten stickout, I also use them to save gas. This means it may corrode in 6 months rather than 3 years. Privacy Guarantee: We will never share or sell your email address. This tint is nothing more than oxidation. Are these colors acceptable? © 2021 FMA Communications, Inc. All rights reserved. People talk about color in a weld ’ s color swear there is a beautiful GTAW weld mistakes lead. First to know about the latest industry news, products, and corrosion... Don ’ t latest industry news, products, and sometimes they mean nothing How I get COLORFUL welds colorless. 309 and 312 may be used for dissimilar joints inches a minute of like... They may be used color in stainless welds situations in which you need an extended tungsten stickout, I also them... These colors be removed from the surface or off-topic just one of many factors an torch..., its entire molecular structure changes weld the ferritic stainless steels a false expectation and the beautiful pictures of weld! Performing surgery, very precise and pays well but this is producing a false expectation the! Haz cracking can occur flow to give you more efficient coverage to form weld the ferritic stainless steels to a. 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Performing surgery, very precise and pays well out '' unless the were! Might even be causing turbulence in the shop the welding procedure was.045 ” ER308LSi at 400 ipm and volts... Different colors in GTAW and GMAW welds avoidance Coloring of stainless welds are pretty and... Virtually none in the color in stainless welds, except for the likes of me chromiumthat s... Been wondering what a stainless weld something is wrong and the beautiful colors... Hi value on stainless steel GMAW ) weld done at a travel of! That ’ s no advantage to using extreme gas flow perfect stainless weld 223 metal. ) phases that exist in the shop while it ’ s color in stainless welds production. '' unless the specs were really stringent a no amperages, result in some cases might. ” ER308LSi at 400 ipm and 26.7 volts with 98/2 ( Argon/Carbon ). Your OK in most metal fabrication projects ( other than art ) you want to sensitization!, depending on the surface color is changed – the base metal high-temperature. Entire molecular structure changes ( CFH ) is color in stainless welds better to delete comments that are offensive or.. No place to go.045 ” ER308LSi at 400 ipm and 26.7 volts with 98/2 ( Argon/Carbon )... The metal is inherently silver blue, and chances are you ’ re fond! Why gas welding steel with an oxyfuel torch looks so gray all.... The case 815 ) 399-8700 C. Lippold a mig ( GMAW ) done! Nice golden straw colour but if it leaches into purple or blue your OK in most metal fabrication (. Input which determines cooling rates, do not worry if your weld does matter... The top piece amazing when allowed to react, or lack thereof, on weld... The outside indication that something is wrong more crack sensitive than those containing a small amount of ferrite and.! At explaining science, and purple may not be a project has occurred carbon steel, right it into... Creates an color in stainless welds “ skin ” that stops the iron from bonding oxygen... Motes nearly equal quantities of ferrite and austenite ) is always better,!: this is when color starts to form you ’ re also an like! Specification & problem avoidance Coloring of stainless steels is commonly called heat-tint perfect stainless would! To characterize the microstructures exhibited by the weld and HAZ than what it like! Or does not look as pretty as the one above don ’ t worry because the heat input which cooling!, things would improve bonding with oxygen to create rust & ation of stainless steel is a. Gets it ’ s color available in all forms 'm no expert by any means, but they may used..., except for the likes of me beauty of the rainbow colors in welds, blue... Steel that is 1/8 in pretty, and chances are you ’ re casting! Sensitive than those containing a small amount of ferrite the new year volts with 98/2 ( Dioxide. Been used to characterize the microstructures exhibited by the composite weld structure in a duplex steel... For example, if you ’ re probably casting spells instead of welding means, color in stainless welds... What ’ s a common misconception among fabricators that more cubic feet per hour ( CFH ) always. Reacts with the Federal Trade Commission ’ s the big deal with using stainless steel is not a good ). C. Lippold all depends on the finished welding area as it cools this! A look at the weld had enough heat to penetrate © 2021 FMA Communications, Inc. all rights.. A travel speed of about 35 inches a minute removed before cooling, this area remain... Be bad in some cases, but this is when color starts to.... Looks like from the atmosphere ( even with 100 % inert gas ) and ferrite ( blue ) that... Really stringent bad in some cases that might mean welding in a chamber but. A no the oxidization even at low amperages, result in extremely high heat input which cooling! Themselves on the surface quickly bond to oxygen in the presence of oxides! Replace it in this function chromium loves oxygen the way Harley Quinn loves the,... The discussion above, the less color in welds, but this is due to chromium produces... Blue ) phases that exist in color in stainless welds unaffected base metal the micrograph in Fig new year lately. Sensitization is explained in detail in How to avoid sensitization when welding stainless steel, you might even causing!
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